R&D: Crop Improvement

Rice


Rice is the principal food crop of Odisha. Systematic rice research in Odisha dates back to the mid-1930s. The breeding programme during the mid 1930s yielded more than 30 varieties. Some of these varieties still maintain popularity either as cultivars or as parents in hybridisation breeding:

  • T 141-Still grown in a sizeable lowland area for its high adaptability and better quality grains; often used as parent in high yielding rice breeding programme.
  • T 1242- Maintains its popularity as a lowland cultivar for its grain quality and pigmented leaf base.
  • FR 13A and FR 45- considered as top donors both at the national and international levels for flood/submergence tolerance and are being used extensively as parents in breeding for flood resistance.
Breeding for High Yielding Variety (HYV)

            Breeding of high yielding rice varieties in Orissa was initiated in the mid 1960s and the efforts during the last 50 years led to release of  as many as 59 rice varieties for commercial cultivation in Odisha and these are :

Table 2.   Rice varieties developed in OUAT

 Some of the above mentioned varieties are cultivated in a sizeable land area and are popular among the farmers:

  •  Parijat, Khandagiri  and Subhadra (very early) for uplands in the kharif and irrigated lands in rabi.
  • Lalat, Konark, Surendra, Gajapati, Manaswini and Pratikshya in medium rainfed / irrigated lands.
  • Kanchan, Mahanadi and Jagabandhu in lowlands.

      It is worth mentioning that the spread of varieties like Lalat, Parijat, Pratikshya has gone to adjoining states, West Bengal and Chhatisgarh. One of the rice varieties developed at OUAT, OR 142-99 has been released in Cambodia under the popular name ‘Santep heap - 3 ' and is one of the leading varieties of the country and OR 1128-7-1 has been released in Tamil Nadu under the popular name of ADT-44. Jagannath a short height mutant developed by X-ray irradiation of T 141, is a unique achievement of the University and has been the leading low-land variety during 1970-80s and has revolutionized the low land breeding programme.

Nutritious cereals

Maize, finger millet and little millet are the important nutritious cereals grown in the state. The composite  maize varieties viz; Dhawal, Navjot and Megha, the hybrids viz: Deccan 103, Ganga 2, Deccan 105, Trishulata, Deccan 107, Pro 311, PAC 705, BIO 9681, DHM 169 and X 3342, the sweet corn varieties Madhuri, Priya and HSC 1 and quality protein maize varieties Shaktiman 3, Shaktiman 4, HQPM 1, HQPM 5, Vivek, QPM 9 and babycorn hybrids VL baby 1, HM 4 were identified as suitable genotypes for the state.

Crop improvement programme in finger millet and little millet has contributed in development of several important varieties (Table 2).

Table  3.               Finger millet and little millet varieties developed by OUAT for the state

Crop

Variety

Varietal characteristics

Finger millet

Dibyasinha

90-95 days, yield potential 4200 kg/ha, average yield 2400 kg/ha, moderately resistant to blast and pink stem borer.

Neelachal

100-105 days, yield potential 6000 kg/ha, average yield 2700 kg/ha, field resistance to blast and stem borer

Suvra

100-105 days, white grain, yield potential 4500 kg/ha, 10.3% protein, moderately resistant to leaf, neck and finger blast.

Bhairabi

100-108 days, yield potential 4400 kg/ha, 8.1% protein, moderately resistant to leaf, neck, finger sheath blast

Chilika

108-115 days, yield potential 5280 kg/ha, protein content 8.2%

Little millet

Tarini

105-115 days, potential yield 2500 kg/ha, moderately resistant to brown spot and resistant to blast

Kolab

75-80 days, yield potential 2765 kg/ha, moderately resistant to grain smut and sheath blight and resistant to blast,

Sabara

74-77 days, potential yield 2100 kg/ha.

Saura

103 days, average yield 1400 kg/ha, potential yield           3400 kg/ha.

Pulse crops


Odisha occupies a unique position in the total production of greengram and blackgram at the national level. These crops are cultivated in all the three seasons of a year. There is a great scope of increasing area of these crops under paira cropping as well as in moisture retentive rainfed rice fallows. The University has developed some promising greengram and blackgram varieties ideally suitable for Odisha conditions (Table 4).

Table 4.                Pulse varieties developed by OUAT for Orissa

Crop

Variety

Varietal characters

Greengram

Dhauli

(TT 9E)

Suitable for kharif, pre-rabi and rabi, tolerant to Cercospora leaf spot & resistant to powdery mildew(PM)

Kamdev

(OUM 11-5)

Suitable for kharif and pre-rabi, long pods, bold seeded, resistant to YMV, high yielder.

Durga

(OBGG 52)

Suitable for kharif, pre-rabi and summer, long pod, moderately resistant to YMV, high yielder.

Blackgram

Sarala

(B 12-4)

Suitable for kharif and pre-rabi, resistant to YMV and PM, seeds are brownish black. Average yield 8.0 q/ha.

Prasad

(B 3-8-8)

Suitable for kharif and rabi in coastal districts, kharif and pre-rabi in inland districts, seeds are brownish, average yield 800 kg/ha, tolerant to leaf crinkle and leaf curl virus, moderately susceptible to YMV and powdery mildew.

Ujala

(OBG 17)

Suitable for kharif season, early in maturity (70 days), average yield 760 kg/ha, seed brownish black, moderately resistant to powdery mildew, YMV and Cercospora leaf spot.

Mahuri

(OBG 31)

Early variety (65 days), suitable for kharif and pre-rabi season, average yield 900 kg/ha, potential yield 2400 kg/ha.

Horsegram

Urmi

(DS 2-2)

90-95 days, suitable for rainfed uplands after harvest of early paddy, tolerant to moisture stress. Yield potential 1500 kg/ha and average yield of 900 kg/ha.

Oilseeds


The major oilseeds in the state are sesame, groundnut, mustard and niger which constitute 36, 30, 14 and 12%, respectively of the total oilseed area of 8.0 lakh ha. Apart from these crops sunflower, safflower and linseed are grown in limited areas. The continued breeding programme in respect of major oilseed crops have resulted in the development of a good number of varieties suitable for different agro-ecological situations of the state (Table 5).

Table 5.                Oilseed varieties released by OUAT for Odisha

Crop

Variety

Varietal characteristics

Sesame

Vinayak

85-90 days, yield 600 kg/ha, reddish brown seed, oil content 48%, resistant to stem rot.

Kanak

80-85 days, yield 800 kg/ha, deep brown colour seed, oil content 47%

Kalika

80-85 days, yield  800 kg/ha, reddish black seed, oil content 49%, resistant to leaf spot diseases

Uma

70-75 days, yield 1000 kg/ha, pale white seed, oil content 53%, resistant to major disease and pests.

Usha

80-85 days, yield 1200 kg/ha, bright biscuit colour seed, oil content 49%, resistant to major disease and pests.

Nirmala

75-80 days, yield 1200 kg/ha, white seed, oil content 50%, resistant to bacterial diseases

Prachi

80-85 days, yield 1200 kg/ha, black seeded, oil 48%, resistant to major pests and diseases

Amrit

75-80 days, average yield of 10.0 q/ha and have potential yield of 18.0 q/ha, 70-100 capsules/plant and suitable for all seasons.

Smarak

Early maturing (75 days), bold seeds, average yield 10.0 q/ha, potential yield 15.0 q/ha, oil content 50%, suitable for kharif under rainfed condition and in summer under irrigated condition.

Subhra

Medium maturity (85 days), seed coat is bright white, bold seeds, average yield 10.0 q/ha, potential yield 16.0 q/ha, recommended for kharif under rainfed condition and summer under irrigated condition.   

Groundnut

Kissan

110 days in kharif and 125 days in rabi,  bunchy, shelling 71%, oil content 50%, dormancy 15 days

Jawan

110 days in kharif and 130 days in rabi, bunchy, shelling 71%, oil content 47%, resistant to leaf spot.

Smruti

105 days in kharif and 125 days in rabi, bunchy, shelling 71%, oil content 51%, resistant to collar rot, stem rot, bold seed

Devi

90-95 days in kharif and 95-105 days in rabi, medium bold seeds, shelling  75%, 48% oil, average yield during kharif    12 q/ha, 25 q/ha in rabi and summer.

TG 38

110 days , average pod yield 20.0 q/ha,  oil content 47.5%.

TG 51

105-110 days, suitable for rabi and summer season, average yield 15.0 q/ha, potential yield 26.75 q/ha, shelling 72%,      oil 49%.  

JAL 42

95 days in kharif and 105 days in rabi, shelling 68%, oil 48%, pod yield 12 q/ha in kharif and 20 q/ha in rabi

Niger

Deomali

(GA-10)

110-120 days, purple stem colour, black shinning seeds, average yield 5 q/ha.

Utkal Niger- 150

105-110 days, average yield 5-6 q/ha, potential yield 8.0 q/ha, oil content 40.1%.

Mustard

(Toria)

Parbati

70-75 days, oil content 41.3%, seed yield 1300-1500 kg/ha

Anuradha

70-75 days, oil content 44.2%, seed yield 1300-1500 kg/ha

Sushree

75 days, average yield 13.8 q/ha, potential yield 14.8 q/ha, oil content 42.1%, adaptable to late sown conditions.

 Commercial crops


Jute, cotton and sugarcane are the important commercial crops cultivated in Odisha. Crop improvement work in jute has resulted in development of three varieties of Capsularis and two varieties of Olitorious and one mesta variety (Table 6). The University has also developed four varieties of sugarcane and one variety of tobacco (Table 7).

Table     6.            Jute & Mesta varieties developed by OUAT for the State

Crop

Variety

Characteristics

Jute (Capsularis)

Baladev

(JRC 4444)

135 days (fibre) and 180 days (seed), average yield 2400 kg/ha,  potential yield 3300 kg/ha, moderately resistant to stem rot, root rot and stem weevil

Jayadev

(KC 1)

125 days (fibre) and 170-180 days (seeds), average yield 2600 kg/ha, potential yield 3600 kg/ha, resistant to root rot, stem weevil, moderately resistant to stem rot and semi looper,

Shresthaa (KJC-7)

120 days (fibre) and 175 days (seed), average fibre yield 28.0 q/ha, potential yield 36.3 q/ha. It can withstand waterlogging at later stages of growth.

Jute

(Olitorious)

Mahadev

(TJ 40)

125 days (fibre) and 170-175 days (seed)

Plants are 3.5m tall with 1.5cm diameter at base, moderately resistant to stem rot, root rot, potential yield 4000 kg/ha and average yield 2800 kg/ha.

Rebati

(KOM 62)

125 days (fibre) and 180 days (seed), plants remain green at early stages and then become purple coloured, plant height 3.75m and 1.7 cm basal diameter. Moderately resistant to stem root and root rot, potential yield 4200 kg/ha and average yield 3000 kg/ha.

Mesta

Shanti

(JBM 71)

The variety matures in 140 days (fibre) and 240 days (seed, average yield 27.5 q/ha and potential yield 32.0 q/ha, recommended for rainfed high land situations.

 

Table 7. Sugarcane & Tobacco varieties developed by OUAT

Crop

Variety

Characteristics

Sugarcane

Sabita

(Co Or 03151)

Early variety (300 days), withstand 1-2’ standing water during rainy season, average cane yield 114.0 t/ha, potential yield 140.0 t/ha, sucrose 15.85%, resistant to red rot and wilt.

Neelamadhab

(Co Or 03152 )

Early variety (300 days), average cane yield 108.0 t/ha potential yield 121.0 t/ha, sucrose 15.85%, resistant to red rot, wilt, early shoot borer and scale insects.

Raghunath

(Co Or 04152)

Mid late variety variety(360 days), average cane yield 126.3.t/ha, sucrose 16.17 to 17.73%, fibre 12.87%,  pole 12.96%, CCS 10.34 to 18.3 t/ha, tolerant to waterlogging and moisture stress, resistant to red rot disease.

Neelachakra

(Co Or 05646)

Early variety(300 days), sucrose 14.75to 17.86%, fibre 12.68%, pole 12.96%, CCS 9.44 to 14.74 t/ha. Tolerant to waterlogging and moisture stress and  resistant to red rot disease.

Tabacco

(Natu or Pikka)

Gajapati

150 days, moderately open plant type, dark green, non-droopy leaves, 12-15 curable leaves, potential yield 1500 kg/ha and average yield 1200 kg/ha.

 Vegetable crops


OUAT has played a significant role in developing a number of vegetable crop varieties which have been widely accepted in the state as well as in the national level. The tomato and brinjal varieties are resistant to wilt complex (Table 8).

Table 8. Vegetable crop varieties developed by OUAT

Crop

Variety

Important characters

Tomato

Utkal Pallavi

(BT-1)

Fruits borne in clusters (6-12), pear shaped, nipple at the blossom end, resistant to bacterial wilt and nematode wilt, average yield 375.0 q/ha.

Utkal Deepti

(BT-2)

Round fruit, borne in clusters (6-8), resistant to bacterial wilt and nematode wilt, average yield 412.0 q/ha.

Utkal Kumari

(BT-10)

Round fruits borne in clusters (3-5), resistant to bacterial wilt, average yield 402.0 q/ha.

Utkal Urbashi

(BT-12)

Fruits pear shaped, slight green shoulder, resistant to bacterial wilt and tolerant to early blight, average yield 452.0 q/ha.

Utkal Raja

(BT 20-2-1)

Round fruits, borne in clusters (4-5), tolerant to bacterial wilt, average yield 450.0 q/ha.

Utkal Pragyan (BT 116-3-2)

Round fruits with a blunt beak at distal end, borne in cluster (5-6), tolerant to bacterial wilt, average yield 412.0 q/ha.

Brinjal

Utkal Tarini

(BB 7)

Oblong fruits, solitary bearing and sometimes 2 fruits/cluster, resistant to bacterial wilt disease, average yield 340.0 q/ha.

Utkal Keshari

(BB 26)

Deep purple colour fruit of medium large, spines in calyx, susceptible to fruit and shoot borer and tolerant to bacterial wilt, average yield 323.0 q/ha.

Utkal Madhuri

(BB 44)

Long fruits with shinning green colour, medium size, solitary fruiting habit, resistant to bacterial wilt, average yield 316.0 q/ha.

Utkal Jyoti

(BB 13)

Long fruit, medium small, purple in colour, borne in clusters, less susceptible to Phomopsis fruit rot and tolerant to bacterial wilt, average yield 381.0 q/ha.

Utkal Anushree (BB 45 C)

Oblong fruit, small green, borne in cluster (4 to 6), tolerant to bacterial wilt, moderately tolerant to Fusarium wilt and less susceptible to fruit borer, average yield 384.8 q/ha.

Okra

Utkal Gaurav

(BO 2)

Long green fruit, five ridged, resistant to YVMV disease, average yield 92.0 q/ha.

Chilli

Utkal Rashmi

(BC 21-2)

Downward fruiting habit, fruit long, medium girth, straight, good pungency, suitable for dry chilli purpose , average yield 21.8 q/ha.

Utkal Ava

(BC 14-2)

Upward fruiting habit, suitable both for green and dry chilli purpose, average yield 118.0 q/ha (green chilli), 31.0 q/ha (dry chilli)

Cowpea

Utkal Manika

(BCP 3)

Vegetable purpose, bushy variety, pods are smooth, long and fleshy with average pod yield of 78.0 q/ha, moderately tolerant to aphids and YMV disease,

Grain amaranth

Kapilash (BGA2)

White seeds, 13.2 % protein, average yield 13.0 q/ha

 Spices


The High Altitude Research Station, Pottangi has developed a number of varieties of ginger and turmeric which are quite popular in Odisha as well as other states (Table 9).

Table 9. Ginger and turmeric varieties developed by OUAT

Crop

Variety

Important characters

Ginger

Suprava

Matures in 230 days, average yield 16.6 t/ha, oleoresin 8.9%, essential oil 1.9%, dry recovery 20.5%, suitable for both green and dry ginger.

Suruchi

Matures in 218 days, average yield 11.6 t/ha, oleoresin 10.8%, essential oil 2.0%, dry recovery 23.5%, performs well in late sown conditions.

Suravi

Matures in 230 days, average yield 17.5 t/ha, dry recovery 23.0%, oleoresin 10.2% and essential oil 2.1%

Mango ginger

Amba

First ever mango ginger variety, matures in 180 days, average yield 10.0 t/ha,  oleoresin 6.4%, essential oil 0.8%, dry recovery 18.7%

Turmeric

Roma

Matures in 240 days, average yield 20.7 t/ha of fresh rhizomes, dry recovery 31.0%, curcumin 9.3%, oleoresin 13.2%, essential oil 4.2%, possess tolerance to rhizome rot, leaf blotch, leaf spot, rhizome scales.

Surama

Matures in 243 days, average yield 20.0 t/ha of fresh rhizomes, dry recovery 26%, curcumin 9.3%, oleoresin 13.1%, essential oil 4.4%, resistant to  blotch, leaf borers and  rhizome scales.

Ranga

Matures in 240 days, average yield 29.0 t/ha of fresh rhizomes, curcumin 6.3%, oleoresin 13.5%, essential oil 4.4%, dry recovery 24.8%, moderately resistant to leaf blotch and rhizome scales.

Rasmi

Matures in 235 days, average yield 31.3 t/ha of fresh rhizomes, dry recovery 23%, curcumin 6.4%, oleoresin 13.4%, essential oil 4.4%, moderately resistant to leaf spot and rhizome scales.

Plantation crops


The University has developed three varieties of cashew and one variety of betelvine (Table 10).

Table 10. Varieties of plantation crops developed by OUAT

                Crop

Variety

Varietal characters

Cashew

Bhubaneswar-1

Average nut yield 2.0 t/ha, nut weight 4.6 g, shelling 32%

Jagannath

(BH 6)

Mid season flowering (Jan-Mar), bold nut  type,  average nut yield 2.1 t/ha (10.5 kg/plant), nut weight 8.6 g, shelling  32.5 %

Balabhadra

(BH 85)

Early flowering (Dec-Feb), bold nut type, average nut yield 2.0 t/ha (10.0 kg/plant), nut weight 7.4 g, shelling 30.0 %

Betelvine

Utkal Sudam

Large leaf size,  high leaf yield (55.6 lakh/ha), tolerant to Phytopthora leaf spot and vine rot diseases



Year

No. of varieties

Varieties released in the different maturity group

Early

Medium

Late

1969

1

-

 Jagannath

1971

3

-

Hema, Kumar, Rajeswari

1976

2

Parijat, Suphala

-

-

1980

3

Keshari, Subhadra

Jajati

-

1983

5

Shankar, Rudra

Sarathi, Daya, Pratap

1985

3

Pathara

Gouri, Rambha

-

1988

4

-

Shrabani, Lalat, Ananga, Bhubana

-

1992

12

Nilagiri, Khandagiri, Badami, Ghanteswari

Birupa, Bhanja, Samanta, Meher

Mahalaxmi, Kanchana, Urbasi,  Manika,

1999

12

Udayagiri, Lalitagiri

Bhoi, Konark, Surendra, Sebati, Gajapati, Kharabela

Prachi, Ramachandi, Mahanadi, Indravati

2002

1

-

-

Jagabandhu

2005

4

Jogesh, Sidhant

Pratikshya

Uphar

2008

1

-

Manaswini

-

2009

4

Mandakini

Mrunalini, Tejaswini, Ranidhan

-

2012

4

Jyotirmayee

Tanmayee, Hiranmayee,    

Nua Acharmati

-